外部字典的来源 

外部字典可以从许多不同的来源连接。

如果使用xml-file配置字典,则配置如下所示:

<yandex>
  <dictionary>
    ...
    <source>
      <source_type>
        <!-- Source configuration -->
      </source_type>
    </source>
    ...
  </dictionary>
  ...
</yandex>

在情况下 DDL-查询,相等的配置将看起来像:

CREATE DICTIONARY dict_name (...)
...
SOURCE(SOURCE_TYPE(param1 val1 ... paramN valN)) -- Source configuration
...

源配置在 source 科。

对于源类型 本地文件, 可执行文件, HTTP(s), ClickHouse
可选设置:

<source>
  <file>
    <path>/opt/dictionaries/os.tsv</path>
    <format>TabSeparated</format>
  </file>
  <settings>
      <format_csv_allow_single_quotes>0</format_csv_allow_single_quotes>
  </settings>
</source>

SOURCE(FILE(path '/opt/dictionaries/os.tsv' format 'TabSeparated'))
SETTINGS(format_csv_allow_single_quotes = 0)

来源类型 (source_type):

本地文件 

设置示例:

<source>
  <file>
    <path>/opt/dictionaries/os.tsv</path>
    <format>TabSeparated</format>
  </file>
</source>

SOURCE(FILE(path '/opt/dictionaries/os.tsv' format 'TabSeparated'))

设置字段:

  • path – The absolute path to the file.
  • format – The file format. All the formats described in “格式” 支持。

可执行文件 

使用可执行文件取决于 字典如何存储在内存中. 如果字典存储使用 cachecomplex_key_cache,ClickHouse通过向可执行文件的STDIN发送请求来请求必要的密钥。 否则,ClickHouse将启动可执行文件并将其输出视为字典数据。

设置示例:

<source>
    <executable>
        <command>cat /opt/dictionaries/os.tsv</command>
        <format>TabSeparated</format>
    </executable>
</source>

SOURCE(EXECUTABLE(command 'cat /opt/dictionaries/os.tsv' format 'TabSeparated'))

设置字段:

  • command – The absolute path to the executable file, or the file name (if the program directory is written to PATH).
  • format – The file format. All the formats described in “格式” 支持。

Http(s) 

使用HTTP(s)服务器取决于 字典如何存储在内存中. 如果字典存储使用 cachecomplex_key_cache,ClickHouse通过通过发送请求请求必要的密钥 POST 方法。

设置示例:

<source>
    <http>
        <url>http://[::1]/os.tsv</url>
        <format>TabSeparated</format>
        <credentials>
            <user>user</user>
            <password>password</password>
        </credentials>
        <headers>
            <header>
                <name>API-KEY</name>
                <value>key</value>
            </header>
        </headers>
    </http>
</source>

SOURCE(HTTP(
    url 'http://[::1]/os.tsv'
    format 'TabSeparated'
    credentials(user 'user' password 'password')
    headers(header(name 'API-KEY' value 'key'))
))

为了让ClickHouse访问HTTPS资源,您必须 配置openSSL 在服务器配置中。

设置字段:

  • url – The source URL.
  • format – The file format. All the formats described in “格式” 支持。
  • credentials – Basic HTTP authentication. Optional parameter.
    • user – Username required for the authentication.
    • password – Password required for the authentication.
  • headers – All custom HTTP headers entries used for the HTTP request. Optional parameter.
    • header – Single HTTP header entry.
    • name – Identifiant name used for the header send on the request.
    • value – Value set for a specific identifiant name.

ODBC 

您可以使用此方法连接具有ODBC驱动程序的任何数据库。

设置示例:

<source>
    <odbc>
        <db>DatabaseName</db>
        <table>ShemaName.TableName</table>
        <connection_string>DSN=some_parameters</connection_string>
        <invalidate_query>SQL_QUERY</invalidate_query>
    </odbc>
</source>

SOURCE(ODBC(
    db 'DatabaseName'
    table 'SchemaName.TableName'
    connection_string 'DSN=some_parameters'
    invalidate_query 'SQL_QUERY'
))

设置字段:

  • db – Name of the database. Omit it if the database name is set in the <connection_string> 参数。
  • table – Name of the table and schema if exists.
  • connection_string – Connection string.
  • invalidate_query – Query for checking the dictionary status. Optional parameter. Read more in the section 更新字典.

ClickHouse接收来自ODBC-driver的引用符号,并将查询中的所有设置引用到driver,因此有必要根据数据库中的表名大小写设置表名。

如果您在使用Oracle时遇到编码问题,请参阅相应的 FAQ 文章.

ODBC字典功能的已知漏洞 

不安全使用示例

让我们为PostgreSQL配置unixODBC。 的内容 /etc/odbc.ini:

[gregtest]
Driver = /usr/lib/psqlodbca.so
Servername = localhost
PORT = 5432
DATABASE = test_db
#OPTION = 3
USERNAME = test
PASSWORD = test

如果然后进行查询,例如

SELECT * FROM odbc('DSN=gregtest;Servername=some-server.com', 'test_db');

ODBC驱动程序将发送的值 USERNAMEPASSWORDodbc.inisome-server.com.

连接Postgresql的示例 

Ubuntu操作系统。

为PostgreSQL安装unixODBC和ODBC驱动程序:

$ sudo apt-get install -y unixodbc odbcinst odbc-postgresql

配置 /etc/odbc.ini (或 ~/.odbc.ini):

    [DEFAULT]
    Driver = myconnection

    [myconnection]
    Description         = PostgreSQL connection to my_db
    Driver              = PostgreSQL Unicode
    Database            = my_db
    Servername          = 127.0.0.1
    UserName            = username
    Password            = password
    Port                = 5432
    Protocol            = 9.3
    ReadOnly            = No
    RowVersioning       = No
    ShowSystemTables    = No
    ConnSettings        =

ClickHouse中的字典配置:

<yandex>
    <dictionary>
        <name>table_name</name>
        <source>
            <odbc>
                <!-- You can specify the following parameters in connection_string: -->
                <!-- DSN=myconnection;UID=username;PWD=password;HOST=127.0.0.1;PORT=5432;DATABASE=my_db -->
                <connection_string>DSN=myconnection</connection_string>
                <table>postgresql_table</table>
            </odbc>
        </source>
        <lifetime>
            <min>300</min>
            <max>360</max>
        </lifetime>
        <layout>
            <hashed/>
        </layout>
        <structure>
            <id>
                <name>id</name>
            </id>
            <attribute>
                <name>some_column</name>
                <type>UInt64</type>
                <null_value>0</null_value>
            </attribute>
        </structure>
    </dictionary>
</yandex>

CREATE DICTIONARY table_name (
    id UInt64,
    some_column UInt64 DEFAULT 0
)
PRIMARY KEY id
SOURCE(ODBC(connection_string 'DSN=myconnection' table 'postgresql_table'))
LAYOUT(HASHED())
LIFETIME(MIN 300 MAX 360)

您可能需要编辑 odbc.ini 使用驱动程序指定库的完整路径 DRIVER=/usr/local/lib/psqlodbcw.so.

连接MS SQL Server的示例 

Ubuntu操作系统。

安装驱动程序: :

$ sudo apt-get install tdsodbc freetds-bin sqsh

配置驱动程序:

    $ cat /etc/freetds/freetds.conf
    ...

    [MSSQL]
    host = 192.168.56.101
    port = 1433
    tds version = 7.0
    client charset = UTF-8

    $ cat /etc/odbcinst.ini
    ...

    [FreeTDS]
    Description     = FreeTDS
    Driver          = /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/odbc/libtdsodbc.so
    Setup           = /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/odbc/libtdsS.so
    FileUsage       = 1
    UsageCount      = 5

    $ cat ~/.odbc.ini
    ...

    [MSSQL]
    Description     = FreeTDS
    Driver          = FreeTDS
    Servername      = MSSQL
    Database        = test
    UID             = test
    PWD             = test
    Port            = 1433

在ClickHouse中配置字典:

<yandex>
    <dictionary>
        <name>test</name>
        <source>
            <odbc>
                <table>dict</table>
                <connection_string>DSN=MSSQL;UID=test;PWD=test</connection_string>
            </odbc>
        </source>

        <lifetime>
            <min>300</min>
            <max>360</max>
        </lifetime>

        <layout>
            <flat />
        </layout>

        <structure>
            <id>
                <name>k</name>
            </id>
            <attribute>
                <name>s</name>
                <type>String</type>
                <null_value></null_value>
            </attribute>
        </structure>
    </dictionary>
</yandex>

CREATE DICTIONARY test (
    k UInt64,
    s String DEFAULT ''
)
PRIMARY KEY k
SOURCE(ODBC(table 'dict' connection_string 'DSN=MSSQL;UID=test;PWD=test'))
LAYOUT(FLAT())
LIFETIME(MIN 300 MAX 360)

DBMS 

Mysql 

设置示例:

<source>
  <mysql>
      <port>3306</port>
      <user>clickhouse</user>
      <password>qwerty</password>
      <replica>
          <host>example01-1</host>
          <priority>1</priority>
      </replica>
      <replica>
          <host>example01-2</host>
          <priority>1</priority>
      </replica>
      <db>db_name</db>
      <table>table_name</table>
      <where>id=10</where>
      <invalidate_query>SQL_QUERY</invalidate_query>
  </mysql>
</source>

SOURCE(MYSQL(
    port 3306
    user 'clickhouse'
    password 'qwerty'
    replica(host 'example01-1' priority 1)
    replica(host 'example01-2' priority 1)
    db 'db_name'
    table 'table_name'
    where 'id=10'
    invalidate_query 'SQL_QUERY'
))

设置字段:

  • port – The port on the MySQL server. You can specify it for all replicas, or for each one individually (inside <replica>).

  • user – Name of the MySQL user. You can specify it for all replicas, or for each one individually (inside <replica>).

  • password – Password of the MySQL user. You can specify it for all replicas, or for each one individually (inside <replica>).

  • replica – Section of replica configurations. There can be multiple sections.

    - `replica/host` – The MySQL host.
    - `replica/priority` – The replica priority. When attempting to connect, ClickHouse traverses the replicas in order of priority. The lower the number, the higher the priority.
    
  • db – Name of the database.

  • table – Name of the table.

  • where – The selection criteria. The syntax for conditions is the same as for WHERE 例如,mysql中的子句, id > 10 AND id < 20. 可选参数。

  • invalidate_query – Query for checking the dictionary status. Optional parameter. Read more in the section 更新字典.

MySQL可以通过套接字在本地主机上连接。 要做到这一点,设置 hostsocket.

设置示例:

<source>
  <mysql>
      <host>localhost</host>
      <socket>/path/to/socket/file.sock</socket>
      <user>clickhouse</user>
      <password>qwerty</password>
      <db>db_name</db>
      <table>table_name</table>
      <where>id=10</where>
      <invalidate_query>SQL_QUERY</invalidate_query>
  </mysql>
</source>

SOURCE(MYSQL(
    host 'localhost'
    socket '/path/to/socket/file.sock'
    user 'clickhouse'
    password 'qwerty'
    db 'db_name'
    table 'table_name'
    where 'id=10'
    invalidate_query 'SQL_QUERY'
))

ClickHouse 

设置示例:

<source>
    <clickhouse>
        <host>example01-01-1</host>
        <port>9000</port>
        <user>default</user>
        <password></password>
        <db>default</db>
        <table>ids</table>
        <where>id=10</where>
    </clickhouse>
</source>

SOURCE(CLICKHOUSE(
    host 'example01-01-1'
    port 9000
    user 'default'
    password ''
    db 'default'
    table 'ids'
    where 'id=10'
))

设置字段:

  • host – The ClickHouse host. If it is a local host, the query is processed without any network activity. To improve fault tolerance, you can create a 分布 表并在后续配置中输入它。
  • port – The port on the ClickHouse server.
  • user – Name of the ClickHouse user.
  • password – Password of the ClickHouse user.
  • db – Name of the database.
  • table – Name of the table.
  • where – The selection criteria. May be omitted.
  • invalidate_query – Query for checking the dictionary status. Optional parameter. Read more in the section 更新字典.

Mongodb 

设置示例:

<source>
    <mongodb>
        <host>localhost</host>
        <port>27017</port>
        <user></user>
        <password></password>
        <db>test</db>
        <collection>dictionary_source</collection>
    </mongodb>
</source>

SOURCE(MONGO(
    host 'localhost'
    port 27017
    user ''
    password ''
    db 'test'
    collection 'dictionary_source'
))

设置字段:

  • host – The MongoDB host.
  • port – The port on the MongoDB server.
  • user – Name of the MongoDB user.
  • password – Password of the MongoDB user.
  • db – Name of the database.
  • collection – Name of the collection.

Redis 

设置示例:

<source>
    <redis>
        <host>localhost</host>
        <port>6379</port>
        <storage_type>simple</storage_type>
        <db_index>0</db_index>
    </redis>
</source>

SOURCE(REDIS(
    host 'localhost'
    port 6379
    storage_type 'simple'
    db_index 0
))

设置字段:

  • host – The Redis host.
  • port – The port on the Redis server.
  • storage_type – The structure of internal Redis storage using for work with keys. simple 适用于简单源和散列单键源, hash_map 用于具有两个键的散列源。 不支持具有复杂键的范围源和缓存源。 可以省略,默认值为 simple.
  • db_index – The specific numeric index of Redis logical database. May be omitted, default value is 0.

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