UNION Clause 

You can use UNION with explicitly specifying UNION ALL or UNION DISTINCT.

If you don't specify ALL or DISTINCT, it will depend on the union_default_mode setting. The difference between UNION ALL and UNION DISTINCT is that UNION DISTINCT will do a distinct transform for union result, it is equivalent to SELECT DISTINCT from a subquery containing UNION ALL.

You can use UNION to combine any number of SELECT queries by extending their results. Example:

SELECT CounterID, 1 AS table, toInt64(count()) AS c
    FROM test.hits
    GROUP BY CounterID

UNION ALL

SELECT CounterID, 2 AS table, sum(Sign) AS c
    FROM test.visits
    GROUP BY CounterID
    HAVING c > 0

Result columns are matched by their index (order inside SELECT). If column names do not match, names for the final result are taken from the first query.

Type casting is performed for unions. For example, if two queries being combined have the same field with non-Nullable and Nullable types from a compatible type, the resulting UNION has a Nullable type field.

Queries that are parts of UNION can be enclosed in round brackets. ORDER BY and LIMIT are applied to separate queries, not to the final result. If you need to apply a conversion to the final result, you can put all the queries with UNION in a subquery in the FROM clause.

If you use UNION without explicitly specifying UNION ALL or UNION DISTINCT, you can specify the union mode using the union_default_mode setting. The setting values can be ALL, DISTINCT or an empty string. However, if you use UNION with union_default_mode setting to empty string, it will throw an exception. The following examples demonstrate the results of queries with different values setting.

Query:

SET union_default_mode = 'DISTINCT';
SELECT 1 UNION SELECT 2 UNION SELECT 3 UNION SELECT 2;

Result:

┌─1─┐
│ 1 │
└───┘
┌─1─┐
│ 2 │
└───┘
┌─1─┐
│ 3 │
└───┘

Query:

SET union_default_mode = 'ALL';
SELECT 1 UNION SELECT 2 UNION SELECT 3 UNION SELECT 2;

Result:

┌─1─┐
│ 1 │
└───┘
┌─1─┐
│ 2 │
└───┘
┌─1─┐
│ 2 │
└───┘
┌─1─┐
│ 3 │
└───┘

Queries that are parts of UNION/UNION ALL/UNION DISTINCT can be run simultaneously, and their results can be mixed together.

Original article

Rating: 1.6 - 7 votes

Was this content helpful?
★★☆☆☆