GRANT Statement 

  • Grants privileges to ClickHouse user accounts or roles.
  • Assigns roles to user accounts or to the other roles.

To revoke privileges, use the REVOKE statement. Also you can list granted privileges with the SHOW GRANTS statement.

Granting Privilege Syntax 

GRANT [ON CLUSTER cluster_name] privilege[(column_name [,...])] [,...] ON {db.table|db.*|*.*|table|*} TO {user | role | CURRENT_USER} [,...] [WITH GRANT OPTION]
  • privilege — Type of privilege.
  • role — ClickHouse user role.
  • user — ClickHouse user account.

The WITH GRANT OPTION clause grants user or role with permission to execute the GRANT query. Users can grant privileges of the same scope they have and less.

Assigning Role Syntax 

GRANT [ON CLUSTER cluster_name] role [,...] TO {user | another_role | CURRENT_USER} [,...] [WITH ADMIN OPTION]
  • role — ClickHouse user role.
  • user — ClickHouse user account.

The WITH ADMIN OPTION clause grants ADMIN OPTION privilege to user or role.

Usage 

To use GRANT, your account must have the GRANT OPTION privilege. You can grant privileges only inside the scope of your account privileges.

For example, administrator has granted privileges to the john account by the query:

GRANT SELECT(x,y) ON db.table TO john WITH GRANT OPTION

It means that john has the permission to execute:

  • SELECT x,y FROM db.table.
  • SELECT x FROM db.table.
  • SELECT y FROM db.table.

john can’t execute SELECT z FROM db.table. The SELECT * FROM db.table also is not available. Processing this query, ClickHouse doesn’t return any data, even x and y. The only exception is if a table contains only x and y columns. In this case ClickHouse returns all the data.

Also john has the GRANT OPTION privilege, so it can grant other users with privileges of the same or smaller scope.

Specifying privileges you can use asterisk (*) instead of a table or a database name. For example, the GRANT SELECT ON db.* TO john query allows john to execute the SELECT query over all the tables in db database. Also, you can omit database name. In this case privileges are granted for current database. For example, GRANT SELECT ON * TO john grants the privilege on all the tables in the current database, GRANT SELECT ON mytable TO john grants the privilege on the mytable table in the current database.

Access to the system database is always allowed (since this database is used for processing queries).

You can grant multiple privileges to multiple accounts in one query. The query GRANT SELECT, INSERT ON *.* TO john, robin allows accounts john and robin to execute the INSERT and SELECT queries over all the tables in all the databases on the server.

Privileges 

Privilege is a permission to execute specific kind of queries.

Privileges have a hierarchical structure. A set of permitted queries depends on the privilege scope.

Hierarchy of privileges:

  • SELECT
  • INSERT
  • ALTER
    • ALTER TABLE
      • ALTER UPDATE
      • ALTER DELETE
      • ALTER COLUMN
        • ALTER ADD COLUMN
        • ALTER DROP COLUMN
        • ALTER MODIFY COLUMN
        • ALTER COMMENT COLUMN
        • ALTER CLEAR COLUMN
        • ALTER RENAME COLUMN
      • ALTER INDEX
        • ALTER ORDER BY
        • ALTER ADD INDEX
        • ALTER DROP INDEX
        • ALTER MATERIALIZE INDEX
        • ALTER CLEAR INDEX
      • ALTER CONSTRAINT
        • ALTER ADD CONSTRAINT
        • ALTER DROP CONSTRAINT
      • ALTER TTL
      • ALTER MATERIALIZE TTL
      • ALTER SETTINGS
      • ALTER MOVE PARTITION
      • ALTER FETCH PARTITION
      • ALTER FREEZE PARTITION
    • ALTER VIEW
      • ALTER VIEW REFRESH
      • ALTER VIEW MODIFY QUERY
  • CREATE
    • CREATE DATABASE
    • CREATE TABLE
    • CREATE VIEW
    • CREATE DICTIONARY
    • CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE
  • DROP
    • DROP DATABASE
    • DROP TABLE
    • DROP VIEW
    • DROP DICTIONARY
  • TRUNCATE
  • OPTIMIZE
  • SHOW
    • SHOW DATABASES
    • SHOW TABLES
    • SHOW COLUMNS
    • SHOW DICTIONARIES
  • KILL QUERY
  • ACCESS MANAGEMENT
    • CREATE USER
    • ALTER USER
    • DROP USER
    • CREATE ROLE
    • ALTER ROLE
    • DROP ROLE
    • CREATE ROW POLICY
    • ALTER ROW POLICY
    • DROP ROW POLICY
    • CREATE QUOTA
    • ALTER QUOTA
    • DROP QUOTA
    • CREATE SETTINGS PROFILE
    • ALTER SETTINGS PROFILE
    • DROP SETTINGS PROFILE
    • SHOW ACCESS
      • SHOW_USERS
      • SHOW_ROLES
      • SHOW_ROW_POLICIES
      • SHOW_QUOTAS
      • SHOW_SETTINGS_PROFILES
    • ROLE ADMIN
  • SYSTEM
    • SYSTEM SHUTDOWN
    • SYSTEM DROP CACHE
      • SYSTEM DROP DNS CACHE
      • SYSTEM DROP MARK CACHE
      • SYSTEM DROP UNCOMPRESSED CACHE
    • SYSTEM RELOAD
      • SYSTEM RELOAD CONFIG
      • SYSTEM RELOAD DICTIONARY
      • SYSTEM RELOAD EMBEDDED DICTIONARIES
    • SYSTEM MERGES
    • SYSTEM TTL MERGES
    • SYSTEM FETCHES
    • SYSTEM MOVES
    • SYSTEM SENDS
      • SYSTEM DISTRIBUTED SENDS
      • SYSTEM REPLICATED SENDS
    • SYSTEM REPLICATION QUEUES
    • SYSTEM SYNC REPLICA
    • SYSTEM RESTART REPLICA
    • SYSTEM FLUSH
      • SYSTEM FLUSH DISTRIBUTED
      • SYSTEM FLUSH LOGS
  • INTROSPECTION
    • addressToLine
    • addressToSymbol
    • demangle
  • SOURCES
    • FILE
    • URL
    • REMOTE
    • YSQL
    • ODBC
    • JDBC
    • HDFS
    • S3
  • dictGet

Examples of how this hierarchy is treated:

  • The ALTER privilege includes all other ALTER* privileges.
  • ALTER CONSTRAINT includes ALTER ADD CONSTRAINT and ALTER DROP CONSTRAINT privileges.

Privileges are applied at different levels. Knowing of a level suggests syntax available for privilege.

Levels (from lower to higher):

  • COLUMN — Privilege can be granted for column, table, database, or globally.
  • TABLE — Privilege can be granted for table, database, or globally.
  • VIEW — Privilege can be granted for view, database, or globally.
  • DICTIONARY — Privilege can be granted for dictionary, database, or globally.
  • DATABASE — Privilege can be granted for database or globally.
  • GLOBAL — Privilege can be granted only globally.
  • GROUP — Groups privileges of different levels. When GROUP-level privilege is granted, only that privileges from the group are granted which correspond to the used syntax.

Examples of allowed syntax:

  • GRANT SELECT(x) ON db.table TO user
  • GRANT SELECT ON db.* TO user

Examples of disallowed syntax:

  • GRANT CREATE USER(x) ON db.table TO user
  • GRANT CREATE USER ON db.* TO user

The special privilege ALL grants all the privileges to a user account or a role.

By default, a user account or a role has no privileges.

If a user or a role has no privileges, it is displayed as NONE privilege.

Some queries by their implementation require a set of privileges. For example, to execute the RENAME query you need the following privileges: SELECT, CREATE TABLE, INSERT and DROP TABLE.

SELECT 

Allows executing SELECT queries.

Privilege level: COLUMN.

Description

User granted with this privilege can execute SELECT queries over a specified list of columns in the specified table and database. If user includes other columns then specified a query returns no data.

Consider the following privilege:

GRANT SELECT(x,y) ON db.table TO john

This privilege allows john to execute any SELECT query that involves data from the x and/or y columns in db.table, for example, SELECT x FROM db.table. john can’t execute SELECT z FROM db.table. The SELECT * FROM db.table also is not available. Processing this query, ClickHouse doesn’t return any data, even x and y. The only exception is if a table contains only x and y columns, in this case ClickHouse returns all the data.

INSERT 

Allows executing INSERT queries.

Privilege level: COLUMN.

Description

User granted with this privilege can execute INSERT queries over a specified list of columns in the specified table and database. If user includes other columns then specified a query doesn’t insert any data.

Example

GRANT INSERT(x,y) ON db.table TO john

The granted privilege allows john to insert data to the x and/or y columns in db.table.

ALTER 

Allows executing ALTER queries according to the following hierarchy of privileges:

  • ALTER. Level: COLUMN.
    • ALTER TABLE. Level: GROUP
      • ALTER UPDATE. Level: COLUMN. Aliases: UPDATE
      • ALTER DELETE. Level: COLUMN. Aliases: DELETE
      • ALTER COLUMN. Level: GROUP
        • ALTER ADD COLUMN. Level: COLUMN. Aliases: ADD COLUMN
        • ALTER DROP COLUMN. Level: COLUMN. Aliases: DROP COLUMN
        • ALTER MODIFY COLUMN. Level: COLUMN. Aliases: MODIFY COLUMN
        • ALTER COMMENT COLUMN. Level: COLUMN. Aliases: COMMENT COLUMN
        • ALTER CLEAR COLUMN. Level: COLUMN. Aliases: CLEAR COLUMN
        • ALTER RENAME COLUMN. Level: COLUMN. Aliases: RENAME COLUMN
      • ALTER INDEX. Level: GROUP. Aliases: INDEX
        • ALTER ORDER BY. Level: TABLE. Aliases: ALTER MODIFY ORDER BY, MODIFY ORDER BY
        • ALTER ADD INDEX. Level: TABLE. Aliases: ADD INDEX
        • ALTER DROP INDEX. Level: TABLE. Aliases: DROP INDEX
        • ALTER MATERIALIZE INDEX. Level: TABLE. Aliases: MATERIALIZE INDEX
        • ALTER CLEAR INDEX. Level: TABLE. Aliases: CLEAR INDEX
      • ALTER CONSTRAINT. Level: GROUP. Aliases: CONSTRAINT
        • ALTER ADD CONSTRAINT. Level: TABLE. Aliases: ADD CONSTRAINT
        • ALTER DROP CONSTRAINT. Level: TABLE. Aliases: DROP CONSTRAINT
      • ALTER TTL. Level: TABLE. Aliases: ALTER MODIFY TTL, MODIFY TTL
      • ALTER MATERIALIZE TTL. Level: TABLE. Aliases: MATERIALIZE TTL
      • ALTER SETTINGS. Level: TABLE. Aliases: ALTER SETTING, ALTER MODIFY SETTING, MODIFY SETTING
      • ALTER MOVE PARTITION. Level: TABLE. Aliases: ALTER MOVE PART, MOVE PARTITION, MOVE PART
      • ALTER FETCH PARTITION. Level: TABLE. Aliases: FETCH PARTITION
      • ALTER FREEZE PARTITION. Level: TABLE. Aliases: FREEZE PARTITION
    • ALTER VIEW Level: GROUP
      • ALTER VIEW REFRESH. Level: VIEW. Aliases: ALTER LIVE VIEW REFRESH, REFRESH VIEW
      • ALTER VIEW MODIFY QUERY. Level: VIEW. Aliases: ALTER TABLE MODIFY QUERY

Examples of how this hierarchy is treated:

  • The ALTER privilege includes all other ALTER* privileges.
  • ALTER CONSTRAINT includes ALTER ADD CONSTRAINT and ALTER DROP CONSTRAINT privileges.

Notes

  • The MODIFY SETTING privilege allows modifying table engine settings. It doesn’t affect settings or server configuration parameters.
  • The ATTACH operation needs the CREATE privilege.
  • The DETACH operation needs the DROP privilege.
  • To stop mutation by the KILL MUTATION query, you need to have a privilege to start this mutation. For example, if you want to stop the ALTER UPDATE query, you need the ALTER UPDATE, ALTER TABLE, or ALTER privilege.

CREATE 

Allows executing CREATE and ATTACH DDL-queries according to the following hierarchy of privileges:

  • CREATE. Level: GROUP
    • CREATE DATABASE. Level: DATABASE
    • CREATE TABLE. Level: TABLE
    • CREATE VIEW. Level: VIEW
    • CREATE DICTIONARY. Level: DICTIONARY
    • CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE. Level: GLOBAL

Notes

  • To delete the created table, a user needs DROP.

DROP 

Allows executing DROP and DETACH queries according to the following hierarchy of privileges:

  • DROP. Level:
    • DROP DATABASE. Level: DATABASE
    • DROP TABLE. Level: TABLE
    • DROP VIEW. Level: VIEW
    • DROP DICTIONARY. Level: DICTIONARY

TRUNCATE 

Allows executing TRUNCATE queries.

Privilege level: TABLE.

OPTIMIZE 

Allows executing OPTIMIZE TABLE queries.

Privilege level: TABLE.

SHOW 

Allows executing SHOW, DESCRIBE, USE, and EXISTS queries according to the following hierarchy of privileges:

  • SHOW. Level: GROUP
    • SHOW DATABASES. Level: DATABASE. Allows to execute SHOW DATABASES, SHOW CREATE DATABASE, USE <database> queries.
    • SHOW TABLES. Level: TABLE. Allows to execute SHOW TABLES, EXISTS <table>, CHECK <table> queries.
    • SHOW COLUMNS. Level: COLUMN. Allows to execute SHOW CREATE TABLE, DESCRIBE queries.
    • SHOW DICTIONARIES. Level: DICTIONARY. Allows to execute SHOW DICTIONARIES, SHOW CREATE DICTIONARY, EXISTS <dictionary> queries.

Notes

A user has the SHOW privilege if it has any other privilege concerning the specified table, dictionary or database.

KILL QUERY 

Allows executing KILL queries according to the following hierarchy of privileges:

Privilege level: GLOBAL.

Notes

KILL QUERY privilege allows one user to kill queries of other users.

ACCESS MANAGEMENT 

Allows a user to execute queries that manage users, roles and row policies.

  • ACCESS MANAGEMENT. Level: GROUP
    • CREATE USER. Level: GLOBAL
    • ALTER USER. Level: GLOBAL
    • DROP USER. Level: GLOBAL
    • CREATE ROLE. Level: GLOBAL
    • ALTER ROLE. Level: GLOBAL
    • DROP ROLE. Level: GLOBAL
    • ROLE ADMIN. Level: GLOBAL
    • CREATE ROW POLICY. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: CREATE POLICY
    • ALTER ROW POLICY. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: ALTER POLICY
    • DROP ROW POLICY. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: DROP POLICY
    • CREATE QUOTA. Level: GLOBAL
    • ALTER QUOTA. Level: GLOBAL
    • DROP QUOTA. Level: GLOBAL
    • CREATE SETTINGS PROFILE. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: CREATE PROFILE
    • ALTER SETTINGS PROFILE. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: ALTER PROFILE
    • DROP SETTINGS PROFILE. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: DROP PROFILE
    • SHOW ACCESS. Level: GROUP
      • SHOW_USERS. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SHOW CREATE USER
      • SHOW_ROLES. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SHOW CREATE ROLE
      • SHOW_ROW_POLICIES. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SHOW POLICIES, SHOW CREATE ROW POLICY, SHOW CREATE POLICY
      • SHOW_QUOTAS. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SHOW CREATE QUOTA
      • SHOW_SETTINGS_PROFILES. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SHOW PROFILES, SHOW CREATE SETTINGS PROFILE, SHOW CREATE PROFILE

The ROLE ADMIN privilege allows a user to assign and revoke any roles including those which are not assigned to the user with the admin option.

SYSTEM 

Allows a user to execute SYSTEM queries according to the following hierarchy of privileges.

  • SYSTEM. Level: GROUP
    • SYSTEM SHUTDOWN. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SYSTEM KILL, SHUTDOWN
    • SYSTEM DROP CACHE. Aliases: DROP CACHE
      • SYSTEM DROP DNS CACHE. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SYSTEM DROP DNS, DROP DNS CACHE, DROP DNS
      • SYSTEM DROP MARK CACHE. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SYSTEM DROP MARK, DROP MARK CACHE, DROP MARKS
      • SYSTEM DROP UNCOMPRESSED CACHE. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SYSTEM DROP UNCOMPRESSED, DROP UNCOMPRESSED CACHE, DROP UNCOMPRESSED
    • SYSTEM RELOAD. Level: GROUP
      • SYSTEM RELOAD CONFIG. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: RELOAD CONFIG
      • SYSTEM RELOAD DICTIONARY. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: SYSTEM RELOAD DICTIONARIES, RELOAD DICTIONARY, RELOAD DICTIONARIES
      • SYSTEM RELOAD EMBEDDED DICTIONARIES. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: RELOAD EMBEDDED DICTIONARIES
    • SYSTEM MERGES. Level: TABLE. Aliases: SYSTEM STOP MERGES, SYSTEM START MERGES, STOP MERGES, START MERGES
    • SYSTEM TTL MERGES. Level: TABLE. Aliases: SYSTEM STOP TTL MERGES, SYSTEM START TTL MERGES, STOP TTL MERGES, START TTL MERGES
    • SYSTEM FETCHES. Level: TABLE. Aliases: SYSTEM STOP FETCHES, SYSTEM START FETCHES, STOP FETCHES, START FETCHES
    • SYSTEM MOVES. Level: TABLE. Aliases: SYSTEM STOP MOVES, SYSTEM START MOVES, STOP MOVES, START MOVES
    • SYSTEM SENDS. Level: GROUP. Aliases: SYSTEM STOP SENDS, SYSTEM START SENDS, STOP SENDS, START SENDS
      • SYSTEM DISTRIBUTED SENDS. Level: TABLE. Aliases: SYSTEM STOP DISTRIBUTED SENDS, SYSTEM START DISTRIBUTED SENDS, STOP DISTRIBUTED SENDS, START DISTRIBUTED SENDS
      • SYSTEM REPLICATED SENDS. Level: TABLE. Aliases: SYSTEM STOP REPLICATED SENDS, SYSTEM START REPLICATED SENDS, STOP REPLICATED SENDS, START REPLICATED SENDS
    • SYSTEM REPLICATION QUEUES. Level: TABLE. Aliases: SYSTEM STOP REPLICATION QUEUES, SYSTEM START REPLICATION QUEUES, STOP REPLICATION QUEUES, START REPLICATION QUEUES
    • SYSTEM SYNC REPLICA. Level: TABLE. Aliases: SYNC REPLICA
    • SYSTEM RESTART REPLICA. Level: TABLE. Aliases: RESTART REPLICA
    • SYSTEM FLUSH. Level: GROUP
      • SYSTEM FLUSH DISTRIBUTED. Level: TABLE. Aliases: FLUSH DISTRIBUTED
      • SYSTEM FLUSH LOGS. Level: GLOBAL. Aliases: FLUSH LOGS

The SYSTEM RELOAD EMBEDDED DICTIONARIES privilege implicitly granted by the SYSTEM RELOAD DICTIONARY ON *.* privilege.

INTROSPECTION 

Allows using introspection functions.

  • INTROSPECTION. Level: GROUP. Aliases: INTROSPECTION FUNCTIONS
    • addressToLine. Level: GLOBAL
    • addressToSymbol. Level: GLOBAL
    • demangle. Level: GLOBAL

SOURCES 

Allows using external data sources. Applies to table engines and table functions.

  • SOURCES. Level: GROUP
    • FILE. Level: GLOBAL
    • URL. Level: GLOBAL
    • REMOTE. Level: GLOBAL
    • YSQL. Level: GLOBAL
    • ODBC. Level: GLOBAL
    • JDBC. Level: GLOBAL
    • HDFS. Level: GLOBAL
    • S3. Level: GLOBAL

The SOURCES privilege enables use of all the sources. Also you can grant a privilege for each source individually. To use sources, you need additional privileges.

Examples:

  • To create a table with the MySQL table engine, you need CREATE TABLE (ON db.table_name) and MYSQL privileges.
  • To use the mysql table function, you need CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE and MYSQL privileges.

dictGet 

  • dictGet. Aliases: dictHas, dictGetHierarchy, dictIsIn

Allows a user to execute dictGet, dictHas, dictGetHierarchy, dictIsIn functions.

Privilege level: DICTIONARY.

Examples

  • GRANT dictGet ON mydb.mydictionary TO john
  • GRANT dictGet ON mydictionary TO john

ALL 

Grants all the privileges on regulated entity to a user account or a role.

NONE 

Doesn’t grant any privileges.

ADMIN OPTION 

The ADMIN OPTION privilege allows a user to grant their role to another user.

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