Settings 

distributed_product_mode 

Changes the behavior of distributed subqueries.

ClickHouse applies this setting when the query contains the product of distributed tables, i.e. when the query for a distributed table contains a non-GLOBAL subquery for the distributed table.

Restrictions:

  • Only applied for IN and JOIN subqueries.
  • Only if the FROM section uses a distributed table containing more than one shard.
  • If the subquery concerns a distributed table containing more than one shard.
  • Not used for a table-valued remote function.

Possible values:

  • deny — Default value. Prohibits using these types of subqueries (returns the “Double-distributed in/JOIN subqueries is denied” exception).
  • local — Replaces the database and table in the subquery with local ones for the destination server (shard), leaving the normal IN/JOIN.
  • global — Replaces the IN/JOIN query with GLOBAL IN/GLOBAL JOIN.
  • allow — Allows the use of these types of subqueries.

enable_optimize_predicate_expression 

Turns on predicate pushdown in SELECT queries.

Predicate pushdown may significantly reduce network traffic for distributed queries.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 1.

Usage

Consider the following queries:

  1. SELECT count() FROM test_table WHERE date = '2018-10-10'
  2. SELECT count() FROM (SELECT * FROM test_table) WHERE date = '2018-10-10'

If enable_optimize_predicate_expression = 1, then the execution time of these queries is equal because ClickHouse applies WHERE to the subquery when processing it.

If enable_optimize_predicate_expression = 0, then the execution time of the second query is much longer, because the WHERE clause applies to all the data after the subquery finishes.

fallback_to_stale_replicas_for_distributed_queries 

Forces a query to an out-of-date replica if updated data is not available. See Replication.

ClickHouse selects the most relevant from the outdated replicas of the table.

Used when performing SELECT from a distributed table that points to replicated tables.

By default, 1 (enabled).

force_index_by_date 

Disables query execution if the index can’t be used by date.

Works with tables in the MergeTree family.

If force_index_by_date=1, ClickHouse checks whether the query has a date key condition that can be used for restricting data ranges. If there is no suitable condition, it throws an exception. However, it does not check whether the condition reduces the amount of data to read. For example, the condition Date != ' 2000-01-01 ' is acceptable even when it matches all the data in the table (i.e., running the query requires a full scan). For more information about ranges of data in MergeTree tables, see MergeTree.

force_primary_key 

Disables query execution if indexing by the primary key is not possible.

Works with tables in the MergeTree family.

If force_primary_key=1, ClickHouse checks to see if the query has a primary key condition that can be used for restricting data ranges. If there is no suitable condition, it throws an exception. However, it does not check whether the condition reduces the amount of data to read. For more information about data ranges in MergeTree tables, see MergeTree.

format_schema 

This parameter is useful when you are using formats that require a schema definition, such as Cap’n Proto or Protobuf. The value depends on the format.

fsync_metadata 

Enables or disables fsync when writing .sql files. Enabled by default.

It makes sense to disable it if the server has millions of tiny tables that are constantly being created and destroyed.

enable_http_compression 

Enables or disables data compression in the response to an HTTP request.

For more information, read the HTTP interface description.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

http_zlib_compression_level 

Sets the level of data compression in the response to an HTTP request if enable_http_compression = 1.

Possible values: Numbers from 1 to 9.

Default value: 3.

http_native_compression_disable_checksumming_on_decompress 

Enables or disables checksum verification when decompressing the HTTP POST data from the client. Used only for ClickHouse native compression format (not used with gzip or deflate).

For more information, read the HTTP interface description.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

send_progress_in_http_headers 

Enables or disables X-ClickHouse-Progress HTTP response headers in clickhouse-server responses.

For more information, read the HTTP interface description.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

max_http_get_redirects 

Limits the maximum number of HTTP GET redirect hops for URL-engine tables. The setting applies to both types of tables: those created by the CREATE TABLE query and by the url table function.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer number of hops.
  • 0 — No hops allowed.

Default value: 0.

input_format_allow_errors_num 

Sets the maximum number of acceptable errors when reading from text formats (CSV, TSV, etc.).

The default value is 0.

Always pair it with input_format_allow_errors_ratio.

If an error occurred while reading rows but the error counter is still less than input_format_allow_errors_num, ClickHouse ignores the row and moves on to the next one.

If both input_format_allow_errors_num and input_format_allow_errors_ratio are exceeded, ClickHouse throws an exception.

input_format_allow_errors_ratio 

Sets the maximum percentage of errors allowed when reading from text formats (CSV, TSV, etc.).
The percentage of errors is set as a floating-point number between 0 and 1.

The default value is 0.

Always pair it with input_format_allow_errors_num.

If an error occurred while reading rows but the error counter is still less than input_format_allow_errors_ratio, ClickHouse ignores the row and moves on to the next one.

If both input_format_allow_errors_num and input_format_allow_errors_ratio are exceeded, ClickHouse throws an exception.

input_format_values_interpret_expressions 

Enables or disables the full SQL parser if the fast stream parser can’t parse the data. This setting is used only for the Values format at the data insertion. For more information about syntax parsing, see the Syntax section.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.

    In this case, you must provide formatted data. See the Formats section.

  • 1 — Enabled.

    In this case, you can use an SQL expression as a value, but data insertion is much slower this way. If you insert only formatted data, then ClickHouse behaves as if the setting value is 0.

Default value: 1.

Example of Use

Insert the DateTime type value with the different settings.

SET input_format_values_interpret_expressions = 0;
INSERT INTO datetime_t VALUES (now())
Exception on client:
Code: 27. DB::Exception: Cannot parse input: expected ) before: now()): (at row 1)
SET input_format_values_interpret_expressions = 1;
INSERT INTO datetime_t VALUES (now())
Ok.

The last query is equivalent to the following:

SET input_format_values_interpret_expressions = 0;
INSERT INTO datetime_t SELECT now()
Ok.

input_format_values_deduce_templates_of_expressions 

Enables or disables template deduction for SQL expressions in Values format. It allows parsing and interpreting expressions in Values much faster if expressions in consecutive rows have the same structure. ClickHouse tries to deduce template of an expression, parse the following rows using this template and evaluate the expression on a batch of successfully parsed rows.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 1.

For the following query:

INSERT INTO test VALUES (lower('Hello')), (lower('world')), (lower('INSERT')), (upper('Values')), ...
  • If input_format_values_interpret_expressions=1 and format_values_deduce_templates_of_expressions=0, expressions are interpreted separately for each row (this is very slow for large number of rows).
  • If input_format_values_interpret_expressions=0 and format_values_deduce_templates_of_expressions=1, expressions in the first, second and third rows are parsed using template lower(String) and interpreted together, expression in the forth row is parsed with another template (upper(String)).
  • If input_format_values_interpret_expressions=1 and format_values_deduce_templates_of_expressions=1, the same as in previous case, but also allows fallback to interpreting expressions separately if it’s not possible to deduce template.

input_format_values_accurate_types_of_literals 

This setting is used only when input_format_values_deduce_templates_of_expressions = 1. It can happen, that expressions for some column have the same structure, but contain numeric literals of different types, e.g.

(..., abs(0), ...),             -- UInt64 literal
(..., abs(3.141592654), ...),   -- Float64 literal
(..., abs(-1), ...),            -- Int64 literal

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.

    In this case, ClickHouse may use a more general type for some literals (e.g., Float64 or Int64 instead of UInt64 for 42), but it may cause overflow and precision issues.

  • 1 — Enabled.

    In this case, ClickHouse checks the actual type of literal and uses an expression template of the corresponding type. In some cases, it may significantly slow down expression evaluation in Values.

Default value: 1.

input_format_defaults_for_omitted_fields 

When performing INSERT queries, replace omitted input column values with default values of the respective columns. This option only applies to JSONEachRow, CSV and TabSeparated formats.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 1.

input_format_tsv_empty_as_default 

When enabled, replace empty input fields in TSV with default values. For complex default expressions input_format_defaults_for_omitted_fields must be enabled too.

Disabled by default.

input_format_null_as_default 

Enables or disables using default values if input data contain NULL, but data type of the corresponding column in not Nullable(T) (for text input formats).

input_format_skip_unknown_fields 

Enables or disables skipping insertion of extra data.

When writing data, ClickHouse throws an exception if input data contain columns that do not exist in the target table. If skipping is enabled, ClickHouse doesn’t insert extra data and doesn’t throw an exception.

Supported formats:

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

input_format_import_nested_json 

Enables or disables the insertion of JSON data with nested objects.

Supported formats:

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

See also:

input_format_with_names_use_header 

Enables or disables checking the column order when inserting data.

To improve insert performance, we recommend disabling this check if you are sure that the column order of the input data is the same as in the target table.

Supported formats:

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 1.

date_time_input_format 

Allows choosing a parser of the text representation of date and time.

The setting doesn’t apply to date and time functions.

Possible values:

  • 'best_effort' — Enables extended parsing.

    ClickHouse can parse the basic YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS format and all ISO 8601 date and time formats. For example, '2018-06-08T01:02:03.000Z'.

  • 'basic' — Use basic parser.

    ClickHouse can parse only the basic YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS format. For example, '2019-08-20 10:18:56'.

Default value: 'basic'.

See also:

join_default_strictness 

Sets default strictness for JOIN clauses.

Possible values:

  • ALL — If the right table has several matching rows, ClickHouse creates a Cartesian product from matching rows. This is the normal JOIN behaviour from standard SQL.
  • ANY — If the right table has several matching rows, only the first one found is joined. If the right table has only one matching row, the results of ANY and ALL are the same.
  • ASOF — For joining sequences with an uncertain match.
  • Empty string — If ALL or ANY is not specified in the query, ClickHouse throws an exception.

Default value: ALL.

join_any_take_last_row 

Changes behaviour of join operations with ANY strictness.

Possible values:

  • 0 — If the right table has more than one matching row, only the first one found is joined.
  • 1 — If the right table has more than one matching row, only the last one found is joined.

Default value: 0.

See also:

join_use_nulls 

Sets the type of JOIN behavior. When merging tables, empty cells may appear. ClickHouse fills them differently based on this setting.

Possible values:

  • 0 — The empty cells are filled with the default value of the corresponding field type.
  • 1 — JOIN behaves the same way as in standard SQL. The type of the corresponding field is converted to Nullable, and empty cells are filled with NULL.

Default value: 0.

partial_merge_join_optimizations 

Disables optimizations in partial merge join algorithm for JOIN queries.

By default, this setting enables improvements that could lead to wrong results. If you see suspicious results in your queries, disable optimizations by this setting. Optimizations can be different in different versions of the ClickHouse server.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Optimizations disabled.
  • 1 — Optimizations enabled.

Default value: 1.

partial_merge_join_rows_in_right_blocks 

Limits sizes of right-hand join data blocks in partial merge join algorithm for JOIN queries.

ClickHouse server:

  1. Splits right-hand join data into blocks with up to the specified number of rows.
  2. Indexes each block with their minimum and maximum values
  3. Unloads prepared blocks to disk if possible.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer. Recommended range of values: [1000, 100000].

Default value: 65536.

join_on_disk_max_files_to_merge 

Limits the number of files allowed for parallel sorting in MergeJoin operations when they are executed on disk.

The bigger the value of the setting, the more RAM used and the less disk I/O needed.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer, starting from 2.

Default value: 64.

any_join_distinct_right_table_keys 

Enables legacy ClickHouse server behavior in ANY INNER|LEFT JOIN operations.

When the legacy behavior enabled:

  • Results of t1 ANY LEFT JOIN t2 and t2 ANY RIGHT JOIN t1 operations are not equal because ClickHouse uses the logic with many-to-one left-to-right table keys mapping.
  • Results of ANY INNER JOIN operations contain all rows from the left table like the SEMI LEFT JOIN operations do.

When the legacy behavior disabled:

  • Results of t1 ANY LEFT JOIN t2 and t2 ANY RIGHT JOIN t1 operations are equal because ClickHouse uses the logic which provides one-to-many keys mapping in ANY RIGHT JOIN operations.
  • Results of ANY INNER JOIN operations contain one row per key from both left and right tables.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Legacy behavior is disabled.
  • 1 — Legacy behavior is enabled.

Default value: 0.

See also:

temporary_files_codec 

Sets compression codec for temporary files used in sorting and joining operations on disk.

Possible values:

  • LZ4 — LZ4 compression is applied.
  • NONE — No compression is applied.

Default value: LZ4.

max_block_size 

In ClickHouse, data is processed by blocks (sets of column parts). The internal processing cycles for a single block are efficient enough, but there are noticeable expenditures on each block. The max_block_size setting is a recommendation for what size of the block (in a count of rows) to load from tables. The block size shouldn’t be too small, so that the expenditures on each block are still noticeable, but not too large so that the query with LIMIT that is completed after the first block is processed quickly. The goal is to avoid consuming too much memory when extracting a large number of columns in multiple threads and to preserve at least some cache locality.

Default value: 65,536.

Blocks the size of max_block_size are not always loaded from the table. If it is obvious that less data needs to be retrieved, a smaller block is processed.

preferred_block_size_bytes 

Used for the same purpose as max_block_size, but it sets the recommended block size in bytes by adapting it to the number of rows in the block.
However, the block size cannot be more than max_block_size rows.
By default: 1,000,000. It only works when reading from MergeTree engines.

merge_tree_min_rows_for_concurrent_read 

If the number of rows to be read from a file of a MergeTree table exceeds merge_tree_min_rows_for_concurrent_read then ClickHouse tries to perform a concurrent reading from this file on several threads.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 163840.

merge_tree_min_bytes_for_concurrent_read 

If the number of bytes to read from one file of a MergeTree-engine table exceeds merge_tree_min_bytes_for_concurrent_read, then ClickHouse tries to concurrently read from this file in several threads.

Possible value:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 251658240.

merge_tree_min_rows_for_seek 

If the distance between two data blocks to be read in one file is less than merge_tree_min_rows_for_seek rows, then ClickHouse does not seek through the file but reads the data sequentially.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 0.

merge_tree_min_bytes_for_seek 

If the distance between two data blocks to be read in one file is less than merge_tree_min_bytes_for_seek bytes, then ClickHouse sequentially reads a range of file that contains both blocks, thus avoiding extra seek.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 0.

merge_tree_coarse_index_granularity 

When searching for data, ClickHouse checks the data marks in the index file. If ClickHouse finds that required keys are in some range, it divides this range into merge_tree_coarse_index_granularity subranges and searches the required keys there recursively.

Possible values:

  • Any positive even integer.

Default value: 8.

merge_tree_max_rows_to_use_cache 

If ClickHouse should read more than merge_tree_max_rows_to_use_cache rows in one query, it doesn’t use the cache of uncompressed blocks.

The cache of uncompressed blocks stores data extracted for queries. ClickHouse uses this cache to speed up responses to repeated small queries. This setting protects the cache from trashing by queries that read a large amount of data. The uncompressed_cache_size server setting defines the size of the cache of uncompressed blocks.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 128 ✕ 8192.

merge_tree_max_bytes_to_use_cache 

If ClickHouse should read more than merge_tree_max_bytes_to_use_cache bytes in one query, it doesn’t use the cache of uncompressed blocks.

The cache of uncompressed blocks stores data extracted for queries. ClickHouse uses this cache to speed up responses to repeated small queries. This setting protects the cache from trashing by queries that read a large amount of data. The uncompressed_cache_size server setting defines the size of the cache of uncompressed blocks.

Possible value:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 2013265920.

min_bytes_to_use_direct_io 

The minimum data volume required for using direct I/O access to the storage disk.

ClickHouse uses this setting when reading data from tables. If the total storage volume of all the data to be read exceeds min_bytes_to_use_direct_io bytes, then ClickHouse reads the data from the storage disk with the O_DIRECT option.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Direct I/O is disabled.
  • Positive integer.

Default value: 0.

network_compression_method 

Sets the method of data compression that is used for communication between servers and between server and clickhouse-client.

Possible values:

  • LZ4 — sets LZ4 compression method.
  • ZSTD — sets ZSTD compression method.

Default value: LZ4.

See Also

network_zstd_compression_level 

Adjusts the level of ZSTD compression. Used only when network_compression_method is set to ZSTD.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer from 1 to 15.

Default value: 1.

log_queries 

Setting up query logging.

Queries sent to ClickHouse with this setup are logged according to the rules in the query_log server configuration parameter.

Example:

log_queries=1

log_queries_min_type 

query_log minimal type to log.

Possible values:
- QUERY_START (=1)
- QUERY_FINISH (=2)
- EXCEPTION_BEFORE_START (=3)
- EXCEPTION_WHILE_PROCESSING (=4)

Default value: QUERY_START.

Can be used to limit which entiries will goes to query_log, say you are interesting only in errors, then you can use EXCEPTION_WHILE_PROCESSING:

log_queries_min_type='EXCEPTION_WHILE_PROCESSING'

log_query_threads 

Setting up query threads logging.

Queries’ threads runned by ClickHouse with this setup are logged according to the rules in the query_thread_log server configuration parameter.

Example:

log_query_threads=1

max_insert_block_size 

The size of blocks (in a count of rows) to form for insertion into a table.
This setting only applies in cases when the server forms the blocks.
For example, for an INSERT via the HTTP interface, the server parses the data format and forms blocks of the specified size.
But when using clickhouse-client, the client parses the data itself, and the ‘max_insert_block_size’ setting on the server doesn’t affect the size of the inserted blocks.
The setting also doesn’t have a purpose when using INSERT SELECT, since data is inserted using the same blocks that are formed after SELECT.

Default value: 1,048,576.

The default is slightly more than max_block_size. The reason for this is because certain table engines (*MergeTree) form a data part on the disk for each inserted block, which is a fairly large entity. Similarly, *MergeTree tables sort data during insertion and a large enough block size allow sorting more data in RAM.

min_insert_block_size_rows 

Sets minimum number of rows in block which can be inserted into a table by an INSERT query. Smaller-sized blocks are squashed into bigger ones.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Squashing disabled.

Default value: 1048576.

min_insert_block_size_bytes 

Sets minimum number of bytes in block which can be inserted into a table by an INSERT query. Smaller-sized blocks are squashed into bigger ones.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Squashing disabled.

Default value: 268435456.

max_replica_delay_for_distributed_queries 

Disables lagging replicas for distributed queries. See Replication.

Sets the time in seconds. If a replica lags more than the set value, this replica is not used.

Default value: 300.

Used when performing SELECT from a distributed table that points to replicated tables.

max_threads 

The maximum number of query processing threads, excluding threads for retrieving data from remote servers (see the ‘max_distributed_connections’ parameter).

This parameter applies to threads that perform the same stages of the query processing pipeline in parallel.
For example, when reading from a table, if it is possible to evaluate expressions with functions, filter with WHERE and pre-aggregate for GROUP BY in parallel using at least ‘max_threads’ number of threads, then ‘max_threads’ are used.

Default value: the number of physical CPU cores.

If less than one SELECT query is normally run on a server at a time, set this parameter to a value slightly less than the actual number of processor cores.

For queries that are completed quickly because of a LIMIT, you can set a lower ‘max_threads’. For example, if the necessary number of entries are located in every block and max_threads = 8, then 8 blocks are retrieved, although it would have been enough to read just one.

The smaller the max_threads value, the less memory is consumed.

max_insert_threads 

The maximum number of threads to execute the INSERT SELECT query.

Possible values:

  • 0 (or 1) — INSERT SELECT no parallel execution.
  • Positive integer. Bigger than 1.

Default value: 0.

Parallel INSERT SELECT has effect only if the SELECT part is executed in parallel, see max_threads setting.
Higher values will lead to higher memory usage.

max_compress_block_size 

The maximum size of blocks of uncompressed data before compressing for writing to a table. By default, 1,048,576 (1 MiB). If the size is reduced, the compression rate is significantly reduced, the compression and decompression speed increases slightly due to cache locality, and memory consumption is reduced. There usually isn’t any reason to change this setting.

Don’t confuse blocks for compression (a chunk of memory consisting of bytes) with blocks for query processing (a set of rows from a table).

min_compress_block_size 

For MergeTree" tables. In order to reduce latency when processing queries, a block is compressed when writing the next mark if its size is at least ‘min_compress_block_size’. By default, 65,536.

The actual size of the block, if the uncompressed data is less than ‘max_compress_block_size’, is no less than this value and no less than the volume of data for one mark.

Let’s look at an example. Assume that ‘index_granularity’ was set to 8192 during table creation.

We are writing a UInt32-type column (4 bytes per value). When writing 8192 rows, the total will be 32 KB of data. Since min_compress_block_size = 65,536, a compressed block will be formed for every two marks.

We are writing a URL column with the String type (average size of 60 bytes per value). When writing 8192 rows, the average will be slightly less than 500 KB of data. Since this is more than 65,536, a compressed block will be formed for each mark. In this case, when reading data from the disk in the range of a single mark, extra data won’t be decompressed.

There usually isn’t any reason to change this setting.

max_query_size 

The maximum part of a query that can be taken to RAM for parsing with the SQL parser.
The INSERT query also contains data for INSERT that is processed by a separate stream parser (that consumes O(1) RAM), which is not included in this restriction.

Default value: 256 KiB.

max_parser_depth 

Limits maximum recursion depth in the recursive descent parser. Allows to control stack size.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Recursion depth is unlimited.

Default value: 1000.

interactive_delay 

The interval in microseconds for checking whether request execution has been cancelled and sending the progress.

Default value: 100,000 (checks for cancelling and sends the progress ten times per second).

connect_timeout, receive_timeout, send_timeout 

Timeouts in seconds on the socket used for communicating with the client.

Default value: 10, 300, 300.

cancel_http_readonly_queries_on_client_close 

Cancels HTTP read-only queries (e.g. SELECT) when a client closes the connection without waiting for the response.

Default value: 0

poll_interval 

Lock in a wait loop for the specified number of seconds.

Default value: 10.

max_distributed_connections 

The maximum number of simultaneous connections with remote servers for distributed processing of a single query to a single Distributed table. We recommend setting a value no less than the number of servers in the cluster.

Default value: 1024.

The following parameters are only used when creating Distributed tables (and when launching a server), so there is no reason to change them at runtime.

distributed_connections_pool_size 

The maximum number of simultaneous connections with remote servers for distributed processing of all queries to a single Distributed table. We recommend setting a value no less than the number of servers in the cluster.

Default value: 1024.

connect_timeout_with_failover_ms 

The timeout in milliseconds for connecting to a remote server for a Distributed table engine, if the ‘shard’ and ‘replica’ sections are used in the cluster definition.
If unsuccessful, several attempts are made to connect to various replicas.

Default value: 50.

connection_pool_max_wait_ms 

The wait time in milliseconds for a connection when the connection pool is full.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Infinite timeout.

Default value: 0.

connections_with_failover_max_tries 

The maximum number of connection attempts with each replica for the Distributed table engine.

Default value: 3.

extremes 

Whether to count extreme values (the minimums and maximums in columns of a query result). Accepts 0 or 1. By default, 0 (disabled).
For more information, see the section “Extreme values”.

kafka_max_wait_ms 

The wait time in milliseconds for reading messages from Kafka before retry.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Infinite timeout.

Default value: 5000.

See also:

use_uncompressed_cache 

Whether to use a cache of uncompressed blocks. Accepts 0 or 1. By default, 0 (disabled).
Using the uncompressed cache (only for tables in the MergeTree family) can significantly reduce latency and increase throughput when working with a large number of short queries. Enable this setting for users who send frequent short requests. Also pay attention to the uncompressed_cache_size configuration parameter (only set in the config file) – the size of uncompressed cache blocks. By default, it is 8 GiB. The uncompressed cache is filled in as needed and the least-used data is automatically deleted.

For queries that read at least a somewhat large volume of data (one million rows or more), the uncompressed cache is disabled automatically to save space for truly small queries. This means that you can keep the ‘use_uncompressed_cache’ setting always set to 1.

replace_running_query 

When using the HTTP interface, the ‘query_id’ parameter can be passed. This is any string that serves as the query identifier.
If a query from the same user with the same ‘query_id’ already exists at this time, the behaviour depends on the ‘replace_running_query’ parameter.

0 (default) – Throw an exception (don’t allow the query to run if a query with the same ‘query_id’ is already running).

1 – Cancel the old query and start running the new one.

Yandex.Metrica uses this parameter set to 1 for implementing suggestions for segmentation conditions. After entering the next character, if the old query hasn’t finished yet, it should be cancelled.

replace_running_query_max_wait_ms 

The wait time for running query with the same query_id to finish, when the replace_running_query setting is active.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Throwing an exception that does not allow to run a new query if the server already executes a query with the same query_id.

Default value: 5000.

stream_flush_interval_ms 

Works for tables with streaming in the case of a timeout, or when a thread generates max_insert_block_size rows.

The default value is 7500.

The smaller the value, the more often data is flushed into the table. Setting the value too low leads to poor performance.

load_balancing 

Specifies the algorithm of replicas selection that is used for distributed query processing.

ClickHouse supports the following algorithms of choosing replicas:

See also:

Random (by Default) 

load_balancing = random

The number of errors is counted for each replica. The query is sent to the replica with the fewest errors, and if there are several of these, to anyone of them.
Disadvantages: Server proximity is not accounted for; if the replicas have different data, you will also get different data.

Nearest Hostname 

load_balancing = nearest_hostname

The number of errors is counted for each replica. Every 5 minutes, the number of errors is integrally divided by 2. Thus, the number of errors is calculated for a recent time with exponential smoothing. If there is one replica with a minimal number of errors (i.e. errors occurred recently on the other replicas), the query is sent to it. If there are multiple replicas with the same minimal number of errors, the query is sent to the replica with a hostname that is most similar to the server’s hostname in the config file (for the number of different characters in identical positions, up to the minimum length of both hostnames).

For instance, example01-01-1 and example01-01-2.yandex.ru are different in one position, while example01-01-1 and example01-02-2 differ in two places.
This method might seem primitive, but it doesn’t require external data about network topology, and it doesn’t compare IP addresses, which would be complicated for our IPv6 addresses.

Thus, if there are equivalent replicas, the closest one by name is preferred.
We can also assume that when sending a query to the same server, in the absence of failures, a distributed query will also go to the same servers. So even if different data is placed on the replicas, the query will return mostly the same results.

In Order 

load_balancing = in_order

Replicas with the same number of errors are accessed in the same order as they are specified in the configuration.
This method is appropriate when you know exactly which replica is preferable.

First or Random 

load_balancing = first_or_random

This algorithm chooses the first replica in the set or a random replica if the first is unavailable. It’s effective in cross-replication topology setups, but useless in other configurations.

The first_or_random algorithm solves the problem of the in_order algorithm. With in_order, if one replica goes down, the next one gets a double load while the remaining replicas handle the usual amount of traffic. When using the first_or_random algorithm, the load is evenly distributed among replicas that are still available.

It's possible to explicitly define what the first replica is by using the setting load_balancing_first_offset. This gives more control to rebalance query workloads among replicas.

Round Robin 

load_balancing = round_robin

This algorithm uses round robin policy across replicas with the same number of errors (only the queries with round_robin policy is accounted).

prefer_localhost_replica 

Enables/disables preferable using the localhost replica when processing distributed queries.

Possible values:

  • 1 — ClickHouse always sends a query to the localhost replica if it exists.
  • 0 — ClickHouse uses the balancing strategy specified by the load_balancing setting.

Default value: 1.

totals_mode 

How to calculate TOTALS when HAVING is present, as well as when max_rows_to_group_by and group_by_overflow_mode = ‘any’ are present.
See the section “WITH TOTALS modifier”.

totals_auto_threshold 

The threshold for totals_mode = 'auto'.
See the section “WITH TOTALS modifier”.

max_parallel_replicas 

The maximum number of replicas for each shard when executing a query.
For consistency (to get different parts of the same data split), this option only works when the sampling key is set.
Replica lag is not controlled.

compile 

Enable compilation of queries. By default, 0 (disabled).

The compilation is only used for part of the query-processing pipeline: for the first stage of aggregation (GROUP BY).
If this portion of the pipeline was compiled, the query may run faster due to deployment of short cycles and inlining aggregate function calls. The maximum performance improvement (up to four times faster in rare cases) is seen for queries with multiple simple aggregate functions. Typically, the performance gain is insignificant. In very rare cases, it may slow down query execution.

min_count_to_compile 

How many times to potentially use a compiled chunk of code before running compilation. By default, 3.
For testing, the value can be set to 0: compilation runs synchronously and the query waits for the end of the compilation process before continuing execution. For all other cases, use values ​​starting with 1. Compilation normally takes about 5-10 seconds.
If the value is 1 or more, compilation occurs asynchronously in a separate thread. The result will be used as soon as it is ready, including queries that are currently running.

Compiled code is required for each different combination of aggregate functions used in the query and the type of keys in the GROUP BY clause.
The results of the compilation are saved in the build directory in the form of .so files. There is no restriction on the number of compilation results since they don’t use very much space. Old results will be used after server restarts, except in the case of a server upgrade – in this case, the old results are deleted.

output_format_json_quote_64bit_integers 

If the value is true, integers appear in quotes when using JSON* Int64 and UInt64 formats (for compatibility with most JavaScript implementations); otherwise, integers are output without the quotes.

output_format_json_quote_denormals 

Enables +nan, -nan, +inf, -inf outputs in JSON output format.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

Example

Consider the following table account_orders:

┌─id─┬─name───┬─duration─┬─period─┬─area─┐
│  1 │ Andrew │       20 │      0 │  400 │
│  2 │ John   │       40 │      0 │    0 │
│  3 │ Bob    │       15 │      0 │ -100 │
└────┴────────┴──────────┴────────┴──────┘

When output_format_json_quote_denormals = 0, the query returns null values in output:

SELECT area/period FROM account_orders FORMAT JSON;
{
        "meta":
        [
                {
                        "name": "divide(area, period)",
                        "type": "Float64"
                }
        ],

        "data":
        [
                {
                        "divide(area, period)": null
                },
                {
                        "divide(area, period)": null
                },
                {
                        "divide(area, period)": null
                }
        ],

        "rows": 3,

        "statistics":
        {
                "elapsed": 0.003648093,
                "rows_read": 3,
                "bytes_read": 24
        }
}

When output_format_json_quote_denormals = 1, the query returns:

{
        "meta":
        [
                {
                        "name": "divide(area, period)",
                        "type": "Float64"
                }
        ],

        "data":
        [
                {
                        "divide(area, period)": "inf"
                },
                {
                        "divide(area, period)": "-nan"
                },
                {
                        "divide(area, period)": "-inf"
                }
        ],

        "rows": 3,

        "statistics":
        {
                "elapsed": 0.000070241,
                "rows_read": 3,
                "bytes_read": 24
        }
}

format_csv_delimiter 

The character interpreted as a delimiter in the CSV data. By default, the delimiter is ,.

input_format_csv_unquoted_null_literal_as_null 

For CSV input format enables or disables parsing of unquoted NULL as literal (synonym for \N).

output_format_csv_crlf_end_of_line 

Use DOS/Windows-style line separator (CRLF) in CSV instead of Unix style (LF).

output_format_tsv_crlf_end_of_line 

Use DOC/Windows-style line separator (CRLF) in TSV instead of Unix style (LF).

insert_quorum 

Enables the quorum writes.

  • If insert_quorum < 2, the quorum writes are disabled.
  • If insert_quorum >= 2, the quorum writes are enabled.

Default value: 0.

Quorum writes

INSERT succeeds only when ClickHouse manages to correctly write data to the insert_quorum of replicas during the insert_quorum_timeout. If for any reason the number of replicas with successful writes does not reach the insert_quorum, the write is considered failed and ClickHouse will delete the inserted block from all the replicas where data has already been written.

All the replicas in the quorum are consistent, i.e., they contain data from all previous INSERT queries. The INSERT sequence is linearized.

When reading the data written from the insert_quorum, you can use the select_sequential_consistency option.

ClickHouse generates an exception

  • If the number of available replicas at the time of the query is less than the insert_quorum.
  • At an attempt to write data when the previous block has not yet been inserted in the insert_quorum of replicas. This situation may occur if the user tries to perform an INSERT before the previous one with the insert_quorum is completed.

See also:

insert_quorum_timeout 

Write to quorum timeout in seconds. If the timeout has passed and no write has taken place yet, ClickHouse will generate an exception and the client must repeat the query to write the same block to the same or any other replica.

Default value: 60 seconds.

See also:

select_sequential_consistency 

Enables or disables sequential consistency for SELECT queries:

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

Usage

When sequential consistency is enabled, ClickHouse allows the client to execute the SELECT query only for those replicas that contain data from all previous INSERT queries executed with insert_quorum. If the client refers to a partial replica, ClickHouse will generate an exception. The SELECT query will not include data that has not yet been written to the quorum of replicas.

See also:

insert_deduplicate 

Enables or disables block deduplication of INSERT (for Replicated* tables).

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 1.

By default, blocks inserted into replicated tables by the INSERT statement are deduplicated (see Data Replication).

deduplicate_blocks_in_dependent_materialized_views 

Enables or disables the deduplication check for materialized views that receive data from Replicated* tables.

Possible values:

  0 — Disabled.
  1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

Usage

By default, deduplication is not performed for materialized views but is done upstream, in the source table.
If an INSERTed block is skipped due to deduplication in the source table, there will be no insertion into attached materialized views. This behaviour exists to enable insertion of highly aggregated data into materialized views, for cases where inserted blocks are the same after materialized view aggregation but derived from different INSERTs into the source table.
At the same time, this behaviour “breaks” INSERT idempotency. If an INSERT into the main table was successful and INSERT into a materialized view failed (e.g. because of communication failure with Zookeeper) a client will get an error and can retry the operation. However, the materialized view won’t receive the second insert because it will be discarded by deduplication in the main (source) table. The setting deduplicate_blocks_in_dependent_materialized_views allows for changing this behaviour. On retry, a materialized view will receive the repeat insert and will perform deduplication check by itself,
ignoring check result for the source table, and will insert rows lost because of the first failure.

max_network_bytes 

Limits the data volume (in bytes) that is received or transmitted over the network when executing a query. This setting applies to every individual query.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Data volume control is disabled.

Default value: 0.

max_network_bandwidth 

Limits the speed of the data exchange over the network in bytes per second. This setting applies to every query.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Bandwidth control is disabled.

Default value: 0.

max_network_bandwidth_for_user 

Limits the speed of the data exchange over the network in bytes per second. This setting applies to all concurrently running queries performed by a single user.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Control of the data speed is disabled.

Default value: 0.

max_network_bandwidth_for_all_users 

Limits the speed that data is exchanged at over the network in bytes per second. This setting applies to all concurrently running queries on the server.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — Control of the data speed is disabled.

Default value: 0.

count_distinct_implementation 

Specifies which of the uniq* functions should be used to perform the COUNT(DISTINCT …) construction.

Possible values:

Default value: uniqExact.

skip_unavailable_shards 

Enables or disables silently skipping of unavailable shards.

Shard is considered unavailable if all its replicas are unavailable. A replica is unavailable in the following cases:

  • ClickHouse can’t connect to replica for any reason.

    When connecting to a replica, ClickHouse performs several attempts. If all these attempts fail, the replica is considered unavailable.

  • Replica can’t be resolved through DNS.

    If replica’s hostname can’t be resolved through DNS, it can indicate the following situations:

    • Replica’s host has no DNS record. It can occur in systems with dynamic DNS, for example, Kubernetes, where nodes can be unresolvable during downtime, and this is not an error.

    • Configuration error. ClickHouse configuration file contains a wrong hostname.

Possible values:

  • 1 — skipping enabled.

    If a shard is unavailable, ClickHouse returns a result based on partial data and doesn’t report node availability issues.

  • 0 — skipping disabled.

    If a shard is unavailable, ClickHouse throws an exception.

Default value: 0.

distributed_group_by_no_merge 

Do not merge aggregation states from different servers for distributed query processing, you can use this in case it is for certain that there are different keys on different shards

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled (final query processing is done on the initiator node).
  • 1 - Do not merge aggregation states from different servers for distributed query processing (query completelly processed on the shard, initiator only proxy the data).
  • 2 - Same as 1 but apply ORDER BY and LIMIT on the initiator (can be used for queries with ORDER BY and/or LIMIT).

Example

SELECT *
FROM remote('127.0.0.{2,3}', system.one)
GROUP BY dummy
LIMIT 1
SETTINGS distributed_group_by_no_merge = 1
FORMAT PrettyCompactMonoBlock

┌─dummy─┐
     0 
     0 
└───────┘
SELECT *
FROM remote('127.0.0.{2,3}', system.one)
GROUP BY dummy
LIMIT 1
SETTINGS distributed_group_by_no_merge = 2
FORMAT PrettyCompactMonoBlock

┌─dummy─┐
     0 
└───────┘

Default value: 0

optimize_skip_unused_shards 

Enables or disables skipping of unused shards for SELECT queries that have sharding key condition in WHERE/PREWHERE (assuming that the data is distributed by sharding key, otherwise does nothing).

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0

optimize_skip_unused_shards_nesting 

Controls optimize_skip_unused_shards (hence still requires optimize_skip_unused_shards) depends on the nesting level of the distributed query (case when you have Distributed table that look into another Distributed table).

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled, optimize_skip_unused_shards works always.
  • 1 — Enables optimize_skip_unused_shards only for the first level.
  • 2 — Enables optimize_skip_unused_shards up to the second level.

Default value: 0

force_optimize_skip_unused_shards 

Enables or disables query execution if optimize_skip_unused_shards is enabled and skipping of unused shards is not possible. If the skipping is not possible and the setting is enabled, an exception will be thrown.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled. ClickHouse doesn’t throw an exception.
  • 1 — Enabled. Query execution is disabled only if the table has a sharding key.
  • 2 — Enabled. Query execution is disabled regardless of whether a sharding key is defined for the table.

Default value: 0

force_optimize_skip_unused_shards_nesting 

Controls force_optimize_skip_unused_shards (hence still requires force_optimize_skip_unused_shards) depends on the nesting level of the distributed query (case when you have Distributed table that look into another Distributed table).

Possible values:

  • 0 - Disabled, force_optimize_skip_unused_shards works always.
  • 1 — Enables force_optimize_skip_unused_shards only for the first level.
  • 2 — Enables force_optimize_skip_unused_shards up to the second level.

Default value: 0

optimize_distributed_group_by_sharding_key 

Optimize GROUP BY sharding_key queries, by avoiding costly aggregation on the initiator server (which will reduce memory usage for the query on the initiator server).

The following types of queries are supported (and all combinations of them):

  • SELECT DISTINCT [..., ]sharding_key[, ...] FROM dist
  • SELECT ... FROM dist GROUP BY sharding_key[, ...]
  • SELECT ... FROM dist GROUP BY sharding_key[, ...] ORDER BY x
  • SELECT ... FROM dist GROUP BY sharding_key[, ...] LIMIT 1
  • SELECT ... FROM dist GROUP BY sharding_key[, ...] LIMIT 1 BY x

The following types of queries are not supported (support for some of them may be added later):

  • SELECT ... GROUP BY sharding_key[, ...] WITH TOTALS
  • SELECT ... GROUP BY sharding_key[, ...] WITH ROLLUP
  • SELECT ... GROUP BY sharding_key[, ...] WITH CUBE
  • SELECT ... GROUP BY sharding_key[, ...] SETTINGS extremes=1

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0

See also:

optimize_throw_if_noop 

Enables or disables throwing an exception if an OPTIMIZE query didn’t perform a merge.

By default, OPTIMIZE returns successfully even if it didn’t do anything. This setting lets you differentiate these situations and get the reason in an exception message.

Possible values:

  • 1 — Throwing an exception is enabled.
  • 0 — Throwing an exception is disabled.

Default value: 0.

distributed_replica_error_half_life 

  • Type: seconds
  • Default value: 60 seconds

Controls how fast errors in distributed tables are zeroed. If a replica is unavailable for some time, accumulates 5 errors, and distributed_replica_error_half_life is set to 1 second, then the replica is considered normal 3 seconds after last error.

See also:

distributed_replica_error_cap 

  • Type: unsigned int
  • Default value: 1000

Error count of each replica is capped at this value, preventing a single replica from accumulating too many errors.

See also:

distributed_replica_max_ignored_errors 

  • Type: unsigned int
  • Default value: 0

Number of errors that will be ignored while choosing replicas (according to load_balancing algorithm).

See also:

distributed_directory_monitor_sleep_time_ms 

Base interval for the Distributed table engine to send data. The actual interval grows exponentially in the event of errors.

Possible values:

  • A positive integer number of milliseconds.

Default value: 100 milliseconds.

distributed_directory_monitor_max_sleep_time_ms 

Maximum interval for the Distributed table engine to send data. Limits exponential growth of the interval set in the distributed_directory_monitor_sleep_time_ms setting.

Possible values:

  • A positive integer number of milliseconds.

Default value: 30000 milliseconds (30 seconds).

distributed_directory_monitor_batch_inserts 

Enables/disables sending of inserted data in batches.

When batch sending is enabled, the Distributed table engine tries to send multiple files of inserted data in one operation instead of sending them separately. Batch sending improves cluster performance by better-utilizing server and network resources.

Possible values:

  • 1 — Enabled.
  • 0 — Disabled.

Default value: 0.

os_thread_priority 

Sets the priority (nice) for threads that execute queries. The OS scheduler considers this priority when choosing the next thread to run on each available CPU core.

Possible values:

  • You can set values in the range [-20, 19].

Lower values mean higher priority. Threads with low nice priority values are executed more frequently than threads with high values. High values are preferable for long-running non-interactive queries because it allows them to quickly give up resources in favour of short interactive queries when they arrive.

Default value: 0.

query_profiler_real_time_period_ns 

Sets the period for a real clock timer of the query profiler. Real clock timer counts wall-clock time.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer number, in nanoseconds.

    Recommended values:

        - 10000000 (100 times a second) nanoseconds and less for single queries.
        - 1000000000 (once a second) for cluster-wide profiling.
    
  • 0 for turning off the timer.

Type: UInt64.

Default value: 1000000000 nanoseconds (once a second).

See also:

query_profiler_cpu_time_period_ns 

Sets the period for a CPU clock timer of the query profiler. This timer counts only CPU time.

Possible values:

  • A positive integer number of nanoseconds.

    Recommended values:

        - 10000000 (100 times a second) nanoseconds and more for single queries.
        - 1000000000 (once a second) for cluster-wide profiling.
    
  • 0 for turning off the timer.

Type: UInt64.

Default value: 1000000000 nanoseconds.

See also:

allow_introspection_functions 

Enables of disables introspections functions for query profiling.

Possible values:

  • 1 — Introspection functions enabled.
  • 0 — Introspection functions disabled.

Default value: 0.

See Also

input_format_parallel_parsing 

  • Type: bool
  • Default value: True

Enable order-preserving parallel parsing of data formats. Supported only for TSV, TKSV, CSV and JSONEachRow formats.

min_chunk_bytes_for_parallel_parsing 

  • Type: unsigned int
  • Default value: 1 MiB

The minimum chunk size in bytes, which each thread will parse in parallel.

output_format_avro_codec 

Sets the compression codec used for output Avro file.

Type: string

Possible values:

  • null — No compression
  • deflate — Compress with Deflate (zlib)
  • snappy — Compress with Snappy

Default value: snappy (if available) or deflate.

output_format_avro_sync_interval 

Sets minimum data size (in bytes) between synchronization markers for output Avro file.

Type: unsigned int

Possible values: 32 (32 bytes) - 1073741824 (1 GiB)

Default value: 32768 (32 KiB)

format_avro_schema_registry_url 

Sets Confluent Schema Registry URL to use with AvroConfluent format.

Default value: Empty.

input_format_avro_allow_missing_fields 

Enables using fields that are not specified in Avro or AvroConfluent format schema. When a field is not found in the schema, ClickHouse uses the default value instead of throwing an exception.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — Enabled.

Default value: 0.

background_pool_size 

Sets the number of threads performing background operations in table engines (for example, merges in MergeTree engine tables). This setting is applied from default profile at ClickHouse server start and can’t be changed in a user session. By adjusting this setting, you manage CPU and disk load. Smaller pool size utilizes less CPU and disk resources, but background processes advance slower which might eventually impact query performance.

Before changing it, please also take a look at related MergeTree settings, such as number_of_free_entries_in_pool_to_lower_max_size_of_merge and number_of_free_entries_in_pool_to_execute_mutation.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 16.

parallel_distributed_insert_select 

Enables parallel distributed INSERT ... SELECT query.

If we execute INSERT INTO distributed_table_a SELECT ... FROM distributed_table_b queries and both tables use the same cluster, and both tables are either replicated or non-replicated, then this query is processed locally on every shard.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Disabled.
  • 1 — SELECT will be executed on each shard from underlying table of the distributed engine.
  • 2 — SELECT and INSERT will be executed on each shard from/to underlying table of the distributed engine.

Default value: 0.

insert_distributed_sync 

Enables or disables synchronous data insertion into a Distributed table.

By default, when inserting data into a Distributed table, the ClickHouse server sends data to cluster nodes in asynchronous mode. When insert_distributed_sync=1, the data is processed synchronously, and the INSERT operation succeeds only after all the data is saved on all shards (at least one replica for each shard if internal_replication is true).

Possible values:

  • 0 — Data is inserted in asynchronous mode.
  • 1 — Data is inserted in synchronous mode.

Default value: 0.

See Also

background_buffer_flush_schedule_pool_size 

Sets the number of threads performing background flush in Buffer-engine tables. This setting is applied at ClickHouse server start and can’t be changed in a user session.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 16.

background_move_pool_size 

Sets the number of threads performing background moves of data parts for MergeTree-engine tables. This setting is applied at ClickHouse server start and can’t be changed in a user session.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 8.

background_schedule_pool_size 

Sets the number of threads performing background tasks for replicated tables, Kafka streaming, DNS cache updates. This setting is applied at ClickHouse server start and can’t be changed in a user session.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 16.

always_fetch_merged_part 

Prohibits data parts merging in Replicated*MergeTree-engine tables.

When merging is prohibited, the replica never merges parts and always downloads merged parts from other replicas. If there is no required data yet, the replica waits for it. CPU and disk load on the replica server decreases, but the network load on cluster increases. This setting can be useful on servers with relatively weak CPUs or slow disks, such as servers for backups storage.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Replicated*MergeTree-engine tables merge data parts at the replica.
  • 1 — Replicated*MergeTree-engine tables don’t merge data parts at the replica. The tables download merged data parts from other replicas.

Default value: 0.

See Also

background_distributed_schedule_pool_size 

Sets the number of threads performing background tasks for distributed sends. This setting is applied at ClickHouse server start and can’t be changed in a user session.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 16.

validate_polygons 

Enables or disables throwing an exception in the pointInPolygon function, if the polygon is self-intersecting or self-tangent.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Throwing an exception is disabled. pointInPolygon accepts invalid polygons and returns possibly incorrect results for them.
  • 1 — Throwing an exception is enabled.

Default value: 1.

transform_null_in 

Enables equality of NULL values for IN operator.

By default, NULL values can’t be compared because NULL means undefined value. Thus, comparison expr = NULL must always return false. With this setting NULL = NULL returns true for IN operator.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Comparison of NULL values in IN operator returns false.
  • 1 — Comparison of NULL values in IN operator returns true.

Default value: 0.

Example

Consider the null_in table:

┌──idx─┬─────i─┐
│    1 │     1 │
│    2 │  NULL │
│    3 │     3 │
└──────┴───────┘

Query:

SELECT idx, i FROM null_in WHERE i IN (1, NULL) SETTINGS transform_null_in = 0;

Result:

┌──idx─┬────i─┐
│    1 │    1 │
└──────┴──────┘

Query:

SELECT idx, i FROM null_in WHERE i IN (1, NULL) SETTINGS transform_null_in = 1;

Result:

┌──idx─┬─────i─┐
│    1 │     1 │
│    2 │  NULL │
└──────┴───────┘

See Also

low_cardinality_max_dictionary_size 

Sets a maximum size in rows of a shared global dictionary for the LowCardinality data type that can be written to a storage file system. This setting prevents issues with RAM in case of unlimited dictionary growth. All the data that can’t be encoded due to maximum dictionary size limitation ClickHouse writes in an ordinary method.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.

Default value: 8192.

low_cardinality_use_single_dictionary_for_part 

Turns on or turns off using of single dictionary for the data part.

By default, the ClickHouse server monitors the size of dictionaries and if a dictionary overflows then the server starts to write the next one. To prohibit creating several dictionaries set low_cardinality_use_single_dictionary_for_part = 1.

Possible values:

  • 1 — Creating several dictionaries for the data part is prohibited.
  • 0 — Creating several dictionaries for the data part is not prohibited.

Default value: 0.

low_cardinality_allow_in_native_format 

Allows or restricts using the LowCardinality data type with the Native format.

If usage of LowCardinality is restricted, ClickHouse server converts LowCardinality-columns to ordinary ones for SELECT queries, and convert ordinary columns to LowCardinality-columns for INSERT queries.

This setting is required mainly for third-party clients which don’t support LowCardinality data type.

Possible values:

  • 1 — Usage of LowCardinality is not restricted.
  • 0 — Usage of LowCardinality is restricted.

Default value: 1.

allow_suspicious_low_cardinality_types 

Allows or restricts using LowCardinality with data types with fixed size of 8 bytes or less: numeric data types and FixedString(8_bytes_or_less).

For small fixed values using of LowCardinality is usually inefficient, because ClickHouse stores a numeric index for each row. As a result:

  • Disk space usage can rise.
  • RAM consumption can be higher, depending on a dictionary size.
  • Some functions can work slower due to extra coding/encoding operations.

Merge times in MergeTree-engine tables can grow due to all the reasons described above.

Possible values:

  • 1 — Usage of LowCardinality is not restricted.
  • 0 — Usage of LowCardinality is restricted.

Default value: 0.

min_insert_block_size_rows_for_materialized_views 

Sets minimum number of rows in block which can be inserted into a table by an INSERT query. Smaller-sized blocks are squashed into bigger ones. This setting is applied only for blocks inserted into materialized view. By adjusting this setting, you control blocks squashing while pushing to materialized view and avoid excessive memory usage.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.
  • 0 — Squashing disabled.

Default value: 1048576.

See Also

min_insert_block_size_bytes_for_materialized_views 

Sets minimum number of bytes in block which can be inserted into a table by an INSERT query. Smaller-sized blocks are squashed into bigger ones. This setting is applied only for blocks inserted into materialized view. By adjusting this setting, you control blocks squashing while pushing to materialized view and avoid excessive memory usage.

Possible values:

  • Any positive integer.
  • 0 — Squashing disabled.

Default value: 268435456.

See also

output_format_pretty_grid_charset 

Allows to change a charset which is used for printing grids borders. Available charsets are following: UTF-8, ASCII.

Example

SET output_format_pretty_grid_charset = 'UTF-8';
SELECT * FROM a;
┌─a─┐
│ 1 │
└───┘

SET output_format_pretty_grid_charset = 'ASCII';
SELECT * FROM a;
+-a-+
| 1 |
+---+

optimize_read_in_order 

Enables ORDER BY optimization in SELECT queries for reading data from MergeTree tables.

Possible values:

  • 0 — ORDER BY optimization is disabled.
  • 1 — ORDER BY optimization is enabled.

Default value: 1.

See Also

mutations_sync 

Allows to execute ALTER TABLE ... UPDATE|DELETE queries (mutations) synchronously.

Possible values:

  • 0 - Mutations execute asynchronously.
  • 1 - The query waits for all mutations to complete on the current server.
  • 2 - The query waits for all mutations to complete on all replicas (if they exist).

Default value: 0.

See Also

ttl_only_drop_parts 

Enables or disables complete dropping of data parts where all rows are expired in MergeTree tables.

When ttl_only_drop_parts is disabled (by default), the ClickHouse server only deletes expired rows according to their TTL.

When ttl_only_drop_parts is enabled, the ClickHouse server drops a whole part when all rows in it are expired.

Dropping whole parts instead of partial cleaning TTL-d rows allows to have shorter merge_with_ttl_timeout times and lower impact on system performance.

Possible values:

  • 0 — Complete dropping of data parts is disabled.
  • 1 — Complete dropping of data parts is enabled.

Default value: 0.

See Also

lock_acquire_timeout 

Defines how many seconds locking request waits before failing.

Locking timeout is used to protect from deadlocks while executing read/write operations with tables. When timeout expires and locking request fails, the ClickHouse server throws an exeption "Locking attempt timed out! Possible deadlock avoided. Client should retry." with error code DEADLOCK_AVOIDED.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer (in seconds).
  • 0 — No locking timeout.

Default value: 120 seconds.

output_format_pretty_max_value_width 

Limits the width of value displayed in Pretty formats. If the value width exceeds the limit, the value is cut.

Possible values:

  • Positive integer.
  • 0 — The value is cut completely.

Default value: 10000 symbols.

Examples

Query:

SET output_format_pretty_max_value_width = 10;
SELECT range(number) FROM system.numbers LIMIT 10 FORMAT PrettyCompactNoEscapes;

Result:

┌─range(number)─┐
│ []            │
│ [0]           │
│ [0,1]         │
│ [0,1,2]       │
│ [0,1,2,3]     │
│ [0,1,2,3,4⋯   │
│ [0,1,2,3,4⋯   │
│ [0,1,2,3,4⋯   │
│ [0,1,2,3,4⋯   │
│ [0,1,2,3,4⋯   │
└───────────────┘

Query with zero width:

SET output_format_pretty_max_value_width = 0;
SELECT range(number) FROM system.numbers LIMIT 5 FORMAT PrettyCompactNoEscapes;

Result:

┌─range(number)─┐
│ ⋯             │
│ ⋯             │
│ ⋯             │
│ ⋯             │
│ ⋯             │
└───────────────┘

Original article

Rating: 4 - 4 votes

Was this content helpful?
★★★★☆